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Sex differences in sequelae from COVID-19 infection and in long COVID syndrome: a review, 2022, Sylvester et al

Discussion in 'Long Covid research' started by Wyva, Jun 22, 2022.

  1. Wyva

    Wyva Senior Member (Voting Rights)

    Budapest, Hungary


    We conducted literature reviews to uncover differential effects of sex on sequelae from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and on long COVID syndrome.

    Two authors independently searched OvidSP in Embase, Medline, Biosis, and Derwent Drug File. Publications reporting original, sex-disaggregated data for sequelae of COVID-19 (published before August 2020) and long COVID syndrome (published before June 2021) were included in the reviews. The association between COVID-19 sequelae (i.e. lasting <4 weeks after symptom onset) and sex, and between long COVID syndrome (i.e. lasting >4 weeks after symptom onset) and sex, was determined by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) (statistical significance defined by 95% CI not including 1).

    Of 4346 publications identified, 23 and 12 met eligibility criteria for COVID-19 sequelae and long COVID syndrome, respectively. COVID-19 sequelae in the categories of psychiatric/mood (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.35–2.41), ENT (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.39–1.46), musculoskeletal (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.14–1.16), and respiratory (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.08–1.11) were significantly more likely among females (vs. males), whereas renal sequelae (OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75–0.93) were significantly more likely among males.

    The likelihood of having long COVID syndrome was significantly greater among females (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.13–1.32), with the odds of ENT (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.94–2.67), GI (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.04–2.44), psychiatric/mood (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.37–1.82), neurological (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03–1.63), dermatological (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05–1.58), and other (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.25–1.49) disorders significantly higher among females and the odds of endocrine (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.69–0.81) and renal disorders (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.64–0.86) significantly higher among males.

    Sex-disaggregated differences for COVID-19 sequelae and long COVID syndrome were observed. Few COVID-19 studies report sex-disaggregated data, underscoring the need for further sex-based research/reporting of COVID-19 disease.

    Open access: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03007995.2022.2081454
    cfsandmore, Peter Trewhitt and Trish like this.

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